Dysmenorrhoea is a medical word used to describe painful menstrual periods. When it comes to menstruation, women have different experiences. Some people do not have any strange experiences, while others do.
You have probably had dysmenorrhea as a woman at some point in your life. If that is not the case, you have probably read about it, heard about it from your friends and classmates, or seen it from your siblings or neighbours.
Dysmenorrhoea is caused by a rise in prostaglandins, endometriosis, fibroids, adenomyosis, or Pelvic inflammatory disease. Other causes include problems with the uterus, fallopian tubes, other reproductive organs, or other illnesses such as Crohn’s disease and urinary abnormalities.
Almost 95% of women say they have some pain during menstruation, and over 25% of them say they have chronic pain. Most women only experience minor discomfort during their menstrual cycles, but severe pain can accompany other symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and dizziness. In most cases, the discomfort is minor. However, the pain is so intense for other women that it prevents them from performing their daily tasks for several days each month.
This article will go through the different types of dysmenorrhea, their symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment options, and some home cures for relief.
Types of Dysmenorrhea
Dysmenorrhea is divided into two categories.
- Primary dysmenorrhea
- Secondary dysmenorrhea
Primary dysmenorrhea is period discomfort that begins with your first period or shortly after and can last for the rest of your life. Natural molecules called prostaglandins, which are produced in the uterine lining, create pain.
Prostaglandin levels are often high during the start of a period, prompting the uterus’ muscles and blood vessels to contract, resulting in pain. The intensity of this type of period discomfort decreases as the period progresses.
Periods grow less uncomfortable for many women with primary dysmenorrhea as they get older. After having delivery, this sort of period discomfort may also improve.
Secondary dysmenorrhea is a kind of period pain that may result from a problem with the reproductive organs causes. It usually begins later in life and is caused by a medical problem. This type of period pain is more severe than primary dysmenorrhea since it can start a few days before a period, develop worse as the period progresses, and even continue after the period has ended.
Causes of secondary dysmenorrhea
Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue comparable to the uterine lining grows outside of the uterus in various places, such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes, behind the uterus, and on the bladder. These bits of tissue can cause swelling, scarring, and pain since they bleed during your period.
Fibroids are uterine growths that can appear on the exterior, inside, or in the walls. Fibroids in the uterine wall can cause pain and are hypothesized to be influenced by sex hormones.
Although fibroids induce pain during periods, they are asymptomatic in the majority of women.
3. Cervical stenosis
Cervical stenosis is when the cervix narrows and prevents the uterus from passing through the vaginal canal. It causes pain and numbness. As a result of the difficulty in passing the blood through the uterus, cervical stenosis causes cramps and severe pressure in the uterus, resulting in dysmenorrhea. It is a hereditary disorder that can manifest later in life due to other medical illnesses or operations.
Adenomyosis is endometrial cells proliferate in the muscle layers of the uterus. This condition, which is more common in older women who have had children, is difficult to treat. The disorder can result in the uterus becoming significantly larger than it should be and cause abnormal bleeding and pain.
5. Pelvic inflammatory disease
A bacterial infection begins in the uterus and spreads to other reproductive organs, producing stomach pain or pain during menstruation. Some sexually transmitted illnesses, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea, are common causes of these bacteria causing PID.
6. Reproductive problems
Problems with a woman’s uterus, fallopian tubes, and other reproductive organs can cause pain during menstruation.
7. Other health conditions
Some medical issues, such as Crohn’s disease and urinary abnormalities, might flare up and cause pain during your period.
8. Insertion of a copper IUD
A T-shaped contraception device called an intrauterine device ( IUD) is put into the uterus by your doctor to prevent conception. Different types of contraception exist, and some women have copper IUDs implanted in their bodies. If you have it implanted inside of you and are having painful cramps, this is the reason.
In the first six months after installation, Cooper IUDs emit copper into your uterus, producing inflammation and excessive bleeding that causes painful periods.
Symptoms of dysmenorrhea
- You experience a sharp sensational pain in your lower abdomen.
- You may also have lower backaches.
- Fatigue and dizziness.
If you continue to have dysmenorrhea, you should first consult your doctor or gynaecologist and talk to them about your period and the symptoms. The doctor will then try the following to diagnose you.
- Medications may be used as the first step in treatment. If drugs do not work, your doctor should try to figure out what is causing your pain.
- A pelvic exam may be recommended by your doctor if necessary.
- An ultrasound examination.
- A laparoscopy – in severe circumstances, a doctor may recommend this procedure if the medication does not work.
Treatment for dysmenorrhea
- When it comes to treating painful periods, medications are usually the first line of defence. Ibuprofen and other pain medications target prostaglandins. When it comes to period medication, there are several options for the Over The Counter drugs. Your doctor will help with this; just consult them.
- Birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings, which contain estrogen and progestin, can be used to manage painful periods in some cases. It is medically known as Hormone therapy. Kindly consult certified healthcare personnel before doing this.
- Surgery– Surgery may be indicated for some secondary dysmenorrhea causes, such as Fibroids because surgery can occasionally remove them. Endometriosis tissue, on the other hand, can be surgically removed.
- Treatments like acupuncture, acupressure, and nerve stimulation may be beneficial in treating painful periods.
Home remedies for period pain(Dysmenorrhea)
1. Try some yoga and fitness steps.
2. Avoid dairy products- Period cramps might be exacerbated by overeating cheese or ingesting too many milk-based products during your period.
3. Try some of the relaxation techniques.
4. Massaging your lower back and abdomen is also a good idea.
5. Eating cruciferous vegetables such as Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, bok choy, arugula, Brussels sprouts, collards, watercress, and radishes helps in easing period pain.
6. Apply heat to the abdomen with a hot water bottle, heat patch, or a warm cloth.
7. Simply sleep.
8. Avoid Caffeine-containing foods.
9. Drink enough water but be careful not to overdo it to avoid water intoxication and electrolyte imbalances caused by hyponatremia.
10. Avoid smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages.
11. Period cramping may relieve from vitamin B1 or magnesium supplements.
12. Reduce myometrium inflammation with magnesium glycinate. Menstrual cramps can be reduced or eliminated by ingesting 200-400 mg of magnesium glycinate.
13. Use Dim Estro, which is an excellent way to reduce estrogen dominance. DIM Estro helps men and women maintain a healthy estrogen metabolism and relieves period discomfort.
Dysmenorrhea is a common condition in women. Many women despite their age go through this every few days of every month. Much as you may not avoid dysmenorrhea altogether, there are ways and things you can do at home to reduce the intensity of the pain.
Have you ever experienced dysmenorrhea?